Cc

C is for Consciousness, Conception, Creation, Creativity and Cognition

C = Consciousness and Self Consciousness.

Cycles of Action and Chaos

con·scious

con·scious (kŏnʹshəs) adjective

1.     a. Having an awareness of one’s environment and one’s own existence, sensations, and thoughts. See synonyms at aware.  b. Mentally perceptive or alert; awake: The patient remained fully conscious after the local anesthetic was administered.

2.     Capable of thought, will, or perception: The development of conscious life on the planet.

3.     Subjectively known or felt: conscious remorse.

4.     Intentionally conceived or done; deliberate: a conscious insult; made a conscious effort to speak more clearly.

5.     Inwardly attentive or sensible; mindful: was increasingly conscious of being stared at on the street.

6.     Especially aware of or preoccupied with. Often used in combination: a cost-conscious approach to further development; a health-conscious diet.
noun
In psychoanalysis, the component of waking awareness perceptible by a person at any given instant; consciousness.

[From Latin cōnscius : com-, com- + scīre, to know.]

– conʹscious·ly adverb

con·scious·ness

con·scious·ness (kŏnʹshəs-nĭs) noun

1.     The state or condition of being conscious.

2.     A sense of one’s personal or collective identity, especially the complex of attitudes, beliefs, and sensitivities held by or considered characteristic of an individual or a group: Love of freedom runs deep in the national consciousness.

3.     a. Special awareness or sensitivity: class consciousness; race consciousness. b. Alertness to or concern for a particular issue or situation: a movement aimed at raising the general public’s consciousness of social injustice.

4.     In psychoanalysis, the conscious.

PSYCHOLOGY

Consciousness, States of

Consciousness, States of, no simple, accepted definition of consciousness exists. Definitions tend to be repetitions (for example, consciousness defined as awareness) or merely descriptive (for example, consciousness described as sensations, thoughts, or feelings).

Historical Background
Most philosophical discussions of consciousness arose from 17th-century French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes, who questioned the nature of consciousness as physical or nonphysical. English philosophers such as John Locke equated consciousness with physical sensations, whereas European philosophers such as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Immanuel Kant gave a more central and active role to consciousness. The 19th-century German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart wrote that ideas had quality and intensity and that they may inhibit or facilitate one another. This formulation anticipated the later development by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud of the concept of the unconscious.

Foundations of Modern Research
In 1876 German psychologist Wilhelm Max Wundt began researching consciousness. Wundt viewed psychology as the study of the structure of consciousness, which extended beyond sensations and included feelings, images, memory, and attention. In the early 20th century, however, the development of behaviorism in psychology removed considerations of consciousness from psychological research for about 50 years.

Interest in Altered States
In the late 1950s interest in consciousness returned, specifically in relation to altered states of consciousness such as in sleep. Studies indicated that sleep, once considered a passive state, was instead an active state of consciousness. During the 1960s an active search for “higher levels” of consciousness led to an interest in the practices of meditation, Zen Buddhism, yoga, hypnosis, and psychoactive drugs, which produce disorders of consciousness. The most prominent of these drugs are lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin.

Consciousness Theory Today
A new area called cognitive psychology centers on these various states of consciousness. Humanistic psychologists, with a concern for self-actualization and personal growth, have emerged after a long period of silence. Throughout the development of clinical and industrial psychology, the conscious states of people-their current feelings and thoughts-were of obvious importance, but the role of consciousness was often deemphasized in favor of unconscious needs and motivations. Trends can be seen, however, toward a new emphasis on the nature of states of consciousness.

PSYCHOLOGY

Consciousness, States of

Consciousness, States of, no simple, accepted definition of consciousness exists. Definitions tend to be repetitions (for example, consciousness defined as awareness) or merely descriptive (for example, consciousness described as sensations, thoughts, or feelings).

Historical Background
Most philosophical discussions of consciousness arose from 17th-century French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes, who questioned the nature of consciousness as physical or nonphysical. English philosophers such as John Locke equated consciousness with physical sensations, whereas European philosophers such as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Immanuel Kant gave a more central and active role to consciousness. The 19th-century German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart wrote that ideas had quality and intensity and that they may inhibit or facilitate one another. This formulation anticipated the later development by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud of the concept of the unconscious.

Foundations of Modern Research
In 1876 German psychologist Wilhelm Max Wundt began researching consciousness. Wundt viewed psychology as the study of the structure of consciousness, which extended beyond sensations and included feelings, images, memory, and attention. In the early 20th century, however, the development of behaviorism in psychology removed considerations of consciousness from psychological research for about 50 years.

Interest in Altered States
In the late 1950s interest in consciousness returned, specifically in relation to altered states of consciousness such as in sleep. Studies indicated that sleep, once considered a passive state, was instead an active state of consciousness. During the 1960s an active search for “higher levels” of consciousness led to an interest in the practices of meditation, Zen Buddhism, yoga, hypnosis, and psychoactive drugs, which produce disorders of consciousness. The most prominent of these drugs are lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin.

Consciousness Theory Today
A new area called cognitive psychology centers on these various states of consciousness. Humanistic psychologists, with a concern for self-actualization and personal growth, have emerged after a long period of silence. Throughout the development of clinical and industrial psychology, the conscious states of people-their current feelings and thoughts-were of obvious importance, but the role of consciousness was often deemphasized in favor of unconscious needs and motivations. Trends can be seen, however, toward a new emphasis on the nature of states of consciousness.

mo·nad

mo·nad (mōʹnăd´) noun

1.     Philosophy. An indivisible, impenetrable unit of substance viewed as the basic constituent element of physical reality in the metaphysics of Leibnitz.

2.     Biology. A single-celled microorganism, especially a flagellate protozoan of the genus Monas.

3.     Chemistry. An atom or a radical with a valence of 1.

[Latin monas, monad-, unit, from Greek, from monos, single.]

– mo·nadʹic (mə-nădʹik) or mo·nadʹi·cal adjective
– mo·nadʹi·cal·ly adverb
– moʹnad·ism noun

monad (noun)

existence: monad, a being, an entity, ens, essence, quiddity
unit: individual, atom, monad, entity, person
element: unit of being, monad

Creation

Create

cre·ate

[kree-eyt] Show IPA verb, cre·at·ed, cre·at·ing, adjective

verb (used with object)

1.

to cause to come into being, as something unique that would not naturally evolve or that is not made by ordinary processes.
2.

to evolve from one’s own thought or imagination, as a work of art or an invention.
3.

Theater . to perform (a role) for the first time or in the first production of a play.
4.

to make by investing with new rank or by designating; constitute; appoint: to create a peer.
5.

to be the cause or occasion of; give rise to: The announcement created confusion.
6.

to cause to happen; bring about; arrange, as by intention or design: to create a revolution; to create an opportunity to ask for a raise.

Imagination

See also: creative imagination, recombinative immagination.

i·mag·i·na·tion

i·mag·i·na·tion (ĭ-măj´ə-nāʹshən) noun

1.     a. The formation of a mental image of something that is neither perceived as real nor present to the senses. b. The mental image so formed. c. The ability or tendency to form such images.

2.     The ability to confront and deal with reality by using the creative power of the mind; resourcefulness: handled the problems with great imagination.

3.     A traditional or widely held belief or opinion.

4.     Archaic. a. An unrealistic idea or notion; a fancy. b. A plan or scheme.

– i·mag´i·naʹtion·al adjective

Synonyms: imagination, fancy, fantasy. These nouns refer to the power of the mind to form images, especially of what is not present to the senses. Imagination is the most broadly applicable: The actor rehearsed the lines in his imagination. The glorious music haunts my imagination. “In the world of words, the imagination is one of the forces of nature” (Wallace Stevens). Fancy especially suggests mental invention that is whimsical, capricious, or playful and that is characteristically well removed from reality: “which . . . claims to be founded not on fancy . . . but on Fact” (Arthur P. Stanley). Is world peace only the fancy of idealists? Fantasy is applied principally to the product of imagination given free rein and especially to elaborate or extravagant fancy: The sitting room was a kind of Victorian fantasy, full of cabbage roses, fringe, and tassels. “The poet is in command of his fantasy, while it is exactly the mark of the neurotic that he is possessed by his fantasy” (Lionel Trilling).

imagination (noun)

imagination, power of imagination, visual imagination, vivid imagination, highly colored imagination, fertile imagination, bold imagination, wild imagination
fervid imagination, lively imagination
imaginativeness, creativeness
inventiveness, creativity, originality
ingenuity, resourcefulness, skill
fancifulness, fantasy, fantasticalness, stretch of the imagination ideality
understanding, insight, empathy, sympathy, moral sensibility
poetic imagination, frenzy, poetic frenzy, ecstasy, inspiration, afflatus, divine afflatus
fancy, the mind’s eye, recollection, recollection in tranquillity, visualization, objectification, image-building, imagery, word-painting
artistry, creative work

Other Forms
originality: originality, creativeness, inventiveness, imagination
productiveness: inventiveness, resourcefulness, imagination
vision: seeing, visualization, mind’s eye, imagination
thought: invention, inventiveness, imagination
idea: impression, conceit, fancy, imagination
metaphor: symbolism, nonliterality, figurativeness, imagery, imagination
falsehood: imaginativeness, invention, imagination
exaggeration: flight of fancy, stretch of the imagination, imagination
cunning: resourcefulness, inventiveness, ingenuity, imagination

PSYCHOLOGY

Imagination

Imagination, conscious mental process of producing ideas or images of objects, events, relations, qualities, or processes never before experienced or perceived. Imagination, perception (conscious combination of sensory impressions of external objects and events), and memory (recall of previous experiences) are similar mental processes. The present definition of imagination excludes and contrasts with that of memory, as the concept of forming something new contrasts with that of reviving something old. Psychologists occasionally distinguish between imagination that is passive, or reproductive, by which images originally perceived by the senses are produced mentally, and imagination that is active, constructive, or creative, by which the mind produces images of events or objects that are either little related or unrelated to past and present reality.

Knowingness

know·ing

know·ing (nōʹĭng) adjective

1.     Possessing knowledge, information, or understanding. See synonyms at intelligent.

2.     Showing clever awareness and resourcefulness; shrewd.

3.     Suggestive of secret or private knowledge: a knowing glance.

4.     Deliberate; conscious: a knowing attempt to defraud.

– knowʹing·ly adverb
– knowʹing·ness noun

in·tu·i·tion

in·tu·i·tion (ĭn´t-ĭshʹən, -ty-) noun

1.     a. The act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes; immediate cognition. See synonyms at reason.  b. Knowledge gained by the use of this faculty; a perceptive insight.

2.     A sense of something not evident or deducible; an impression.

[Middle English intuicioun, insight, from Late Latin intuitiō, intuitiōn-, a looking at, from Latin intuitus, a look from past participle of intuērī, to look at, contemplate : in-, on. See in-2 + tuērī, to look at.]

– in´tu·iʹtion·al adjective
– in´tu·iʹtion·al·ly adverb

PHILOSOPHY

Intuition

Intuition, in philosophy, a form of knowledge or cognition independent of experience or reason. The intuitive faculty and intuitive knowledge are generally regarded as inherent qualities of the mind. The term has been used in different, sometimes opposing, senses by various writers and cannot be defined except with reference to its meaning in the writings of an individual philosopher. The concept of intuition arose from two sources: the mathematical idea of an axiom (a self-evident proposition that requires no proof) and the mystical idea of revelation (truth that surpasses the power of the intellect).

Intuition was important in Greek philosophy, particularly to Pythagoras, who was trained in mathematics. It was also important in much of Christian philosophy as one of the basic ways to know God. The philosophers who relied most on the idea of intuition were Baruch Spinoza, who believed it to be the highest form of knowledge; Immanuel Kant, who viewed it as the portion of a perception that is supplied by the mind itself; and Henri Bergson, who regarded it as the purest form of instinct, in contrast with intelligence.

intuition (noun)

intuition, instinct, association, Pavlovian response, automatic reaction, gut reaction, knee-jerk reaction, absence of thought
light of nature, sixth sense, extrasensory perception, ESP, psi, psi faculty
telepathy
insight, second sight, clairvoyance, psychics
id, subconscious, spirit
intuitiveness, direct apprehension, unmediated perception, a priori knowledge
divination, dowsing
inspiration, presentiment, impulse, vibrations, feeling
feminine logic
rule of thumb
hunch, impression, sense, guesswork
value judgment, bias
self-deception, wishful thinking
irrationality, illogicality, illogic
unreason, mental disorder

Other Forms
intellect: extrasensory perception, ESP, instinct, sixth sense, intuition
absence of intellect: instinct, brute instinct, intuition
absence of thought: instinctiveness, instinct, intuition
empiricism: instinct, sixth sense, intuition
reasoning: intuitive reason, lateral thinking, intuition
sophistry: intuition
judgment: value judgment, intuition
belief: instinctive belief, intuition
knowledge: insight, intuition
intelligence: ideas, inspiration, sheer inspiration, intuition
supposition: instinct, intuition
conjecture: shrewd idea, intuition
necessity: instinct, impulse, blind impulse, intuition
spontaneity: impulsiveness, impulse, blind impulse, instinct, intuition
feeling: intuition, instinct
revelation: intuition, mystical intuition, mysticism
occultism: sixth sense, intuition
psychics: telesthesia, clairaudience, clairvoyance, feyness, second sight, intuition

Perception

See also: ESP (extrasensory-perception)

extrasensory perception (noun)

sense: sixth sense, feyness, second sight, extrasensory perception, ESP
intellect: extrasensory perception, ESP, instinct, sixth sense, intuition
intuition: light of nature, sixth sense, extrasensory perception, ESP, psi, psi faculty
psychics: paranormal perception, extrasensory perception, ESP

per·cep·tion

per·cep·tion (pər-sĕpʹshən) noun

1.     The process, act, or faculty of perceiving.

2.     The effect or product of perceiving.

3.     Psychology. a. Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory. b. The neurological processes by which such recognition and interpretation are effected.

4.     a. Insight, intuition, or knowledge gained by perceiving. b. The capacity for such insight.

[Middle English percepcioun, from Old French percepcion, from Latin perceptiō, perceptiōn-, from perceptus past participle of percipere, to perceive. See perceive.]

– per·cepʹtion·al adjective

perception (noun)

vision: perception, recognition
intellect: cognition, perception, apperception, percipience, insight
idea: conception, perception, apprehension, intellect
discrimination: insight, perception, acumen, flair, intelligence
knowledge: intellection, apprehension, comprehension, perception, understanding, grasp, mastery, intellect
sagacity: perception, perspicacity, clear thought, clear thinking, clear-headedness

PSYCHOLOGY

Depth Psychology

Historically, depth psychology, from a German term (Tiefenpsychologie), was coined by Eugen Bleuler to refer to psychoanalytic approaches to therapy and research that take the unconscious into account. The term has come to refer to the ongoing development of theories and therapies pioneered by Pierre JanetWilliam JamesSigmund Freud, and Carl Jung. Depth psychology explores the relationship between the conscious and the unconscious and includes both psychoanalysis and Jungian psychology.

In practice, depth psychology seeks to explore underlying motives as an approach to various mental disorders, with the belief that the uncovering of these motives is intrinsically healing. It seeks the deep layers underlying behavioral and cognitive processesArchetypes are primordial elements of the Collective Unconscious in the psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Archetypes form the unchanging context from which the contents of cyclic and sequent changes derive their meanings. Duration is the secret of action.

The initial work and development of the theories and therapies by Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and Otto Rank that came to be known as depth psychology have resulted in three perspectives in modern times:

Summary of primary elements

  • Depth psychology states that psyche is a process that is partly conscious and partly unconscious and partly semi-conscious. The unconscious in turn contains repressed experiences and other personal-level issues in its “upper” layers and “transpersonal” (e.g. collective, non-I, archetypal) forces in its depths. The semi-conscious contains or is, an aware pattern of personality, including everything in a spectrum from individual vanity to the personality of the workplace.
  • The psyche spontaneously generates or is mythico-religious symbolism or themes, and is therefore spiritual or metaphysical, as well as instinctive in nature. An implication of this is that the choice of whether to be a spiritual person may be beyond the individual, whether and how we apply it, including to nonspiritual aspirations.
  • All minds, all lives, are ultimately embedded in some sort of myth-making in the form of themes or patterns. Mythology is therefore not a series of old explanations for natural events, but rather the richness and wonder of humanity played out in a symbolical, thematic, and patterned storytelling.

Related reading

  • Aziz, Robert (1990). C.G. Jung’s Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (10 ed.). The State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0166-9.
  • Aziz, Robert (1999). “Synchronicity and the Transformation of the Ethical in Jungian Psychology”. In Becker, Carl. Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Greenwood. ISBN 0-313-30452-1.
  • Aziz, Robert (2007). The Syndetic Paradigm: The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung. The State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6982-8.
  • Aziz, Robert (2008). “Foreword”. In Storm, Lance. Synchronicity: Multiple Perspectives on Meaningful Coincidence. Pari Publishing. ISBN 978-88-95604-02-2.

See also

Perception (psychology)

Perception (psychology), process by which sensory stimulation is organized into usable experience. Despite the fundamental role that perception plays in the lives of human beings and all but the simplest animals, its processes remain largely obscure, for two main reasons: researchers have had only limited success in breaking down perception into analyzable units; and scientifically verifiable findings are difficult to obtain or repeat, since the study of perception depends mostly on subjective and introspective reports.

Percepts
Perceptual psychologists recognize that most raw, unorganized sensory stimuli are almost instantaneously and subconsciously “corrected” into percepts, or usable experience. Perception is not a simple matter of organizing direct sensory stimuli into percepts, however. Percepts themselves, gained from past experience, also become organized, greatly advancing the accuracy and speed of a person’s perception. The study and theory of percepts reach beyond academic psychology to possible practical applications in learning, education, and clinical psychology.

Classical Theory
According to classical perception theory, most percepts result from a person’s ability to synthesize past experience and current sensory cues. As a newborn explores its world, it soon learns to organize what it sees into a three-dimensional pattern. Using visual, tactile, and auditory cues, the infant quickly learns a host of specific associations that correspond to the properties of objects in the physical world. Proponents of the classical theory of perception believed that most percepts are derived by what they called “unconscious inference from nonnoticed sensations.”

Gestalt Theory
According to Gestalt Psychology, perception is to be understood by taking into account total configurations of mental processes. Experiments by proponents of the Gestalt theory showed that perception of form-a mental structure that takes its attributes from a corresponding structure of brain processes-does not depend on perception of individual elements making up the form. Thus, “squareness” can be perceived in a figure made up of four red lines as well as in one of four black dots.

More recently, researchers have found that specific retinal and nerve cells of amphibians and mammals respond to particular configurations, to particular movements, and to simultaneous stimulation of similarly located cells in the retinas of both eyes.

Understanding

un·der·stand·ing

un·der·stand·ing (ŭn´dər-stănʹdĭng) noun

1.     The quality or condition of one who understands; comprehension.

2.     The faculty by which one understands; intelligence. See synonyms at reason.

3.     Individual or specified judgment or outlook; opinion.

4.     a. A compact implicit between two or more people or groups. b. The matter implicit in such a compact.

5.     A reconciliation of differences; a state of agreement: They finally reached an understanding.

6.     A disposition to appreciate or share the feelings and thoughts of others; sympathy.
adjective

1.     Characterized by or having comprehension, good sense, or discernment.

2.     Compassionate; sympathetic.

– un´der·standʹing·ly adverb

self-dis·cov·er·y

self-dis·cov·er·y (sĕlf´dĭ-skŭvʹə-rē) noun
plural self-dis·cov·er·ies
The act or process of achieving understanding or knowledge of oneself.

understanding (adjective)

friendly: compatible, congenial, sympathetic, understanding
pitying: pitying, compassionate, sympathetic, understanding, condolent, commiserating

Cognition

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognition

In science, cognition: refers to mental processes. These processes include attention, memory, producing and understanding language, solving problems, and making decisions. Cognition is studied in various disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, linguistics, science and computer science. Usage of the term varies in different disciplines; for example in psychology and cognitive science, it usually refers to an information processing view of an individual’s psychological functions. It is also used in a branch of social psychology called social cognition to explain attitudes, attribution and groups dynamics.

The term cognition comes from the Latin verb congnosco (con ‘with’ + gnōscō ‘know’), itself a loanword from the Ancient Greek verb gnόsko “γνώσκω” meaning ‘learning’ (noun: gnόsis “γνώσις” = knowledge), so broadly, ‘to conceptualize’ or ‘to recognize’.

It refers to a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious. These processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neurology and psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, systemics, computer science and creed. Within psychology or philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts such as mind, intelligence, cognition is used to refer to the mental functions, mental processes (thoughts) and states of intelligent entities (humans, collaborative groups, human organizations, highly autonomous machines and artificial intelligences).

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