Kk

K is for Knowledge

K = Knowledge, Process of Knowing.

To Know

knowl·edge

knowl·edge (nŏlʹĭj) noun

1.     The state or fact of knowing.

2.     Familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience or study.

3.     The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned.

4.     Learning; erudition: teachers of great knowledge.

5.     Specific information about something.

6.     Carnal knowledge.

[Middle English knowlech : knowen, to know. See know + -leche, n. suff.]

Synonyms: knowledge, information, learning, erudition, lore, scholarship. These nouns refer to what is known, as by having been acquired through study or experience. Knowledge is the broadest; it includes facts and ideas, understanding, and the totality of what is known: “A knowledge of Greek thought and life, and of the arts in which the Greeks expressed their thought and sentiment, is essential to high culture” (Charles Eliot Norton). “Science is organized knowledge” (Herbert Spencer). Information is usually construed as being narrower in scope than knowledge; it often implies a collection of facts and data: “Obviously, a man’s judgment cannot be better than the information on which he has based it” (Arthur Hays Sulzberger). Learning usually refers to knowledge that is gained by schooling and study: “Learning is not attained by chance, it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence” (Abigail Adams). Erudition implies profound knowledge, often in a specialized area: “Some have criticized his poetry as elitist, unnecessarily impervious to readers who do not share his erudition” (Elizabeth Kastor). Lore is usually applied to knowledge about a particular subject that is gained through tradition or anecdote: Early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend. Scholarship is the knowledge of a scholar whose mastery of a particular area of learning is reflected in the scope, thoroughness, and quality of his or her work: a book that gives ample evidence of the author’s scholarship.

knowledge (noun)

knowledge, ken
knowing, cognition, cognizance, recognition, realization
intellection, apprehension, comprehension, perception, understanding, grasp, mastery, intellect
conscience, consciousness, awareness
consciousness raising
insight, intuition
precognition, foresight
illumination, revelation
lights, enlightenment, wisdom
acquired knowledge, learning, lore erudition
folk wisdom, folklore
occult lore, sorcery
education, background
experience, practical experience, hands-on experience, acquaintance, nodding acquaintance, acquaintanceship, familiarity, intimacy
private knowledge, privity, being in the know, sharing the secret, information
no secret, un secret de Polichinelle
public knowledge, notoriety, common knowledge, open secret, publicity
complete knowledge, omniscience
partial knowledge, intimation, sidelight, glimpse, glimmer, glimmering, inkling, suggestion, hint
suspicion, scent
sensory knowledge, impression, feeling
self-knowledge, introspection
detection, clue, discovery
specialism, specialization, expert knowledge, savoir faire, savvy, know-how, expertise, skill
half-knowledge, semi-ignorance, smattering, sciolism
knowability, knowableness, recognizability, intelligibility
science of knowledge, theory of knowledge, epistemology

Other Forms
certainty: certainty, objective certainty, certitude, certain knowledge, knowledge
wisdom: experience, lifelong experience, digested experience, ripe experience, fund of experience, ripe knowledge, knowledge
information: stock of information, acquaintance, the know, knowledge
publicity: publicness, common knowledge, knowledge
means: technology, new technology, high technology, high tech, knowledge
skill: technology, science, know-how, savvy, technique, technical knowledge, practical knowledge, knowledge
cunning: know-how, lore, knowledge
art of war: military experience, knowledge
feeling: empathy, appreciation, realization, understanding, knowledge
friendship: acquaintanceship, acquaintance, mutual acquaintance, familiarity, intimacy, knowledge
divine attribute: omniscience, wisdom, knowledge
sorcery: Magianism, gramarye, magic lore, knowledge

ac·quaint

ac·quaint (ə-kwāntʹ) verb, transitive
ac·quaint·ed, ac·quaint·ing, ac·quaints

1.     a. To cause to come to know personally: Let me acquaint you with my family. b. To make familiar: acquainted myself with the controls.

2.     To inform: Please acquaint us with your plans.

[Middle English aqueinten, from Old French acointier, from Medieval Latin adcognitāre, from Latin accognitus past participle of accognoscere, to know perfectly : ad-, intensive pref.. See ad- + cognoscere, to know. See cognition.]

fa·mil·iar·i·ty

fa·mil·iar·i·ty (fə-mĭl´yărʹĭ-tē, -mĭl´ē-ărʹ-) noun
plural fa·mil·iar·i·ties

1.     Considerable acquaintance with.

2.     Established friendship; intimacy.

3.     a. An excessively familiar or informal act; an impropriety. b. A sexual advance.

4.     The quality or condition of being familiar.

in·form

in·form (ĭn-fôrmʹ) verb
in·formed, in·form·ing, in·forms

verb, transitive

1.     a. To impart information to; make aware of something: We were informed by mail of the change in plans. The nurse informed me that visiting hours were over. b. To acquaint (oneself) with knowledge of a subject.

2.     To give form or character to; imbue with a quality or an essence: “A society’s strength is measured by . . . its ability to inform a future generation with its moral standards” (Vanity Fair).

3.     To be a pervasive presence in; animate: “It is this brash, backroom sensibility that informs his work as a novelist” (Jeff Shear).

4.     Obsolete. To form (the mind or character) by teaching or training.
verb, intransitive

1.     To give or provide information.

2.     To disclose confidential or incriminating information to an authority: The defendant informed against the other members of the ring.

[Middle English enfourmen, informen, from Old French enfourmer, from Latin īnfōrmāre : in-, in. See in-2 + fōrmāre, to fashion (from fōrma, form).]

per·ceive

per·ceive (pər-sēvʹ) verb, transitive
per·ceived, per·ceiv·ing, per·ceives

1.     To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.

2.     To achieve understanding of; apprehend. See synonyms at see1.

[Middle English perceiven, from Old French perceivre, from Latin percipere : per-, per- + capere, to seize.]

– per·ceivʹa·ble adjective
– per·ceivʹa·bly adverb
– per·ceivʹer noun

wit·ness

wit·ness (wĭtʹnĭs) noun

1.     a. One who can give a firsthand account of something seen, heard, or experienced: a witness to the accident. b. One who furnishes evidence.

2.     Something that serves as evidence; a sign.

3.     Law. a. One who is called on to testify before a court. b. One who is called on to be present at a transaction in order to attest to what takes place. c. One who signs one’s name to a document for the purpose of attesting to its authenticity.

4.     An attestation to a fact, a statement, or an event; testimony.

5.     Witness A member of the Jehovah’s Witnesses.
verb
wit·nessed, wit·ness·ing, wit·ness·es

verb, transitive

1.     a. To be present at or have personal knowledge of. b. To take note of; observe.

2.     To provide or serve as evidence of. See synonyms at indicate.

3.     To testify to; bear witness.

4.     To be the setting or site of: This old auditorium has witnessed many ceremonies.

5.     To attest to the legality or authenticity of by signing one’s name to.
verb, intransitive

1.     To furnish or serve as evidence; testify.

2.     To testify to one’s religious beliefs.

[Middle English, from Old English, from wit, knowledge. See wit1.]

– witʹness·er noun

 

mo·nad

mo·nad (mōʹnăd´) noun

1.     Philosophy. An indivisible, impenetrable unit of substance viewed as the basic constituent element of physical reality in the metaphysics of Leibnitz.

2.     Biology. A single-celled microorganism, especially a flagellate protozoan of the genus Monas.

3.     Chemistry. An atom or a radical with a valence of 1.

[Latin monas, monad-, unit, from Greek, from monos, single.]

– mo·nadʹic (mə-nădʹik) or mo·nadʹi·cal adjective
– mo·nadʹi·cal·ly adverb
– moʹnad·ism noun

monad (noun)

existence: monad, a being, an entity, ens, essence, quiddity
unit: individual, atom, monad, entity, person
element: unit of being, monad

Cognition

To Know.

cog·ni·tion

cog·ni·tion (kŏg-nĭshʹən) noun

1.     The mental process or faculty of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.

2.     That which comes to be known, as through perception, reasoning, or intuition; knowledge.

[Middle English cognicioun, from Latin cognitiō, cognitiōn-, from cognitus past participle of cognōscere, to learn : co-, intensive pref.. See co- + gnōscere, to know.]

– cog·niʹtion·al adjective

in·tu·i·tion

in·tu·i·tion (ĭn´t-ĭshʹən, -ty-) noun

1.     a. The act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes; immediate cognition. See synonyms at reason.  b. Knowledge gained by the use of this faculty; a perceptive insight.

2.     A sense of something not evident or deducible; an impression.

[Middle English intuicioun, insight, from Late Latin intuitiō, intuitiōn-, a looking at, from Latin intuitus, a look from past participle of intuērī, to look at, contemplate : in-, on. See in-2 + tuērī, to look at.]

– in´tu·iʹtion·al adjective
– in´tu·iʹtion·al·ly adverb

PSYCHOLOGY

Cognition

Cognition, act or process of knowing. Cognition includes attention, perception, memory, reasoning, judgment, imagining, thinking, and speech. Cognitive psychology, a discipline that has arisen since the 1950s, studies cognition mainly from the standpoint of information handling. Parallels are stressed between functions of the human brain and computer concepts such as the coding, storing, retrieving, and buffering of information. The actual physiology of cognition is of little interest to cognitive psychologists, but their theoretical models have deepened understanding of memory, psycholinguistics, and the development of intelligence.

cognition (noun)

intellect: cognition, perception, apperception, percipience, insight
knowledge: knowing, cognition, cognizance, recognition, realization

think

think (thĭngk) verb
thought (thôt), think·ing, thinks

verb, transitive

1.     To have or formulate in the mind.

2.     a. To reason about or reflect on; ponder: Think how complex language is. Think the matter through. b. To decide by reasoning, reflection, or pondering: thinking what to do.

3.     To judge or regard; look upon: I think it only fair.

4.     To believe; suppose: always thought he was right.

5.     a. To expect; hope: They thought she’d arrive early. b. To intend: They thought they’d take their time.

6.     To call to mind; remember: I can’t think what her name was.

7.     To visualize; imagine: Think what a scene it will be at the reunion.

8.     To devise or evolve; invent: thought up a plan to get rich quick.

9.     To bring into a given condition by mental preoccupation: He thought himself into a panic over the impending examination.

10.   To concentrate one’s thoughts on: “Think languor” (Diana Vreeland).
verb, intransitive

1.     To exercise the power of reason, as by conceiving ideas, drawing inferences, and using judgment.

2.     To weigh or consider an idea: They are thinking about moving.

3.     a. To bring a thought to mind by imagination or invention: No one before had thought of bifocal glasses. b. To recall a thought or an image to mind: She thought of her childhood when she saw the movie.

4.     To believe; suppose: He thinks of himself as a wit. It’s later than you think.

5.     To have care or consideration: Think first of the ones you love.

6.     To dispose the mind in a given way: Do you think so?
adjective
Informal.
Requiring much thought to create or assimilate: a think book.

noun
The act or an instance of deliberate or extended thinking; a meditation.

idiom.
come to think of it Informal
When one considers the matter; on reflection: Come to think of it, that road back there was the one we were supposed to take.
think aloud or think out loud
To speak one’s thoughts audibly.
think nothing of
To give little consideration to; regard as routine or usual: thought nothing of a 50-mile trip every day.
think twice
To weigh something carefully: I’d think twice before spending all that money on clothes.

[Middle English thenken, from Old English thencan.]

Synonyms: think, cerebrate, cogitate, reason, reflect, speculate. The central meaning shared by these verbs is “to use the powers of the mind, as in conceiving ideas or drawing inferences”: thought before answering; sat in front of the fire cerebrating; cogitating about business problems; reasons clearly; took time to reflect before deciding; speculating on what has happened.

sense

sense (sĕns) noun

1.     a. Any of the faculties by which stimuli from outside or inside the body are received and felt, as the faculties of hearing, sight, smell, touch, taste, and equilibrium. b. A perception or feeling produced by a stimulus; sensation: a sense of fatigue and hunger.

2.     senses The faculties of sensation as means of providing physical gratification and pleasure.

3.     Intuitive or acquired perception or ability to estimate: a sense of diplomatic timing. a. A capacity to appreciate or understand: a keen sense of humor. b. A vague feeling or presentiment: a sense of impending doom. c. Recognition or perception either through the senses or through the intellect; consciousness: has no sense of shame.

4.     a. Often senses Normal ability to think or reason soundly; correct judgment: Come to your senses. b. Something sound or reasonable: There’s no sense in waiting three hours.

5.     a. A meaning that is conveyed, as in speech or writing; signification: The sense of the novel is the inevitability of human tragedy. b. One of the meanings of a word or phrase: The word set has many senses. See synonyms at meaning.

6.     a. Judgment; consensus: sounding out the sense of the electorate on capital punishment. b. Intellectual interpretation, as of the significance of an event or the conclusions reached by a group: I came away from the meeting with the sense that we had resolved all outstanding issues.
verb, transitive
sensed, sens·ing, sens·es

1.     To become aware of; perceive.

2.     To grasp; understand.

3.     To detect automatically: sense radioactivity.

[Middle English, meaning, from Old French sens, from Latin sēnsus, the faculty of perceiving from past participle of sentīre, to feel.]

no·e·sis

no·e·sis (nō-ēʹsĭs) noun
Psychology.
The cognitive process; cognition.

[Greek noēsis, understanding, from noein, to perceive, from nous, mind.]

men·tal1

men·tal (mĕnʹtl) adjective

1.     Of or relating to the mind; intellectual: mental powers.

2.     Executed or performed by the mind; existing in the mind: mental images of happy times. See Usage Note at mental telepathy.

3.     Of, relating to, or affected by a disorder of the mind.

4.     Intended for treatment of people affected with disorders of the mind.

5.     Of or relating to telepathy or mind reading.

6.     Slang. a. Emotionally upset; crazed: got mental when he saw the dent in his new car. b. Offensive Slang. Mentally or psychologically disturbed.

[Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin mentālis, from Latin mēns, ment-, mind.]

– menʹtal·ly adverb

knowl·edge

knowl·edge (nŏlʹĭj) noun

1.     The state or fact of knowing.

2.     Familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience or study.

3.     The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned.

4.     Learning; erudition: teachers of great knowledge.

5.     Specific information about something.

6.     Carnal knowledge.

[Middle English knowlech : knowen, to know. See know + -leche, n. suff.]

Synonyms: knowledge, information, learning, erudition, lore, scholarship. These nouns refer to what is known, as by having been acquired through study or experience. Knowledge is the broadest; it includes facts and ideas, understanding, and the totality of what is known: “A knowledge of Greek thought and life, and of the arts in which the Greeks expressed their thought and sentiment, is essential to high culture” (Charles Eliot Norton). “Science is organized knowledge” (Herbert Spencer). Information is usually construed as being narrower in scope than knowledge; it often implies a collection of facts and data: “Obviously, a man’s judgment cannot be better than the information on which he has based it” (Arthur Hays Sulzberger). Learning usually refers to knowledge that is gained by schooling and study: “Learning is not attained by chance, it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence” (Abigail Adams). Erudition implies profound knowledge, often in a specialized area: “Some have criticized his poetry as elitist, unnecessarily impervious to readers who do not share his erudition” (Elizabeth Kastor). Lore is usually applied to knowledge about a particular subject that is gained through tradition or anecdote: Early peoples passed on plant and animal lore through legend. Scholarship is the knowledge of a scholar whose mastery of a particular area of learning is reflected in the scope, thoroughness, and quality of his or her work: a book that gives ample evidence of the author’s scholarship.

K-Subjects

Education

ed·u·ca·tion

ed·u·ca·tion (ĕj´ə-kāʹshən) noun
Abbr. ed., educ.

1.     The act or process of educating or being educated.

2.     The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process.

3.     A program of instruction of a specified kind or level: driver education; a college education.

4.     The field of study that is concerned with the pedagogy of teaching and learning.

5.     An instructive or enlightening experience: Her work in the inner city was a real education.

EDUCATION

Education, History of

Education, History of, theories, methods, administration, and problems of schools worldwide from ancient times to the present.

Early Educational Systems
The oldest known systems of education had two characteristics in common: They taught religion, and they promoted the traditions of the people. In ancient Egypt the temple schools taught not only religion but also the principles of writing, the sciences, mathematics, and architecture. The Talmud is the basic source of information about the educational methods of the ancient Jews.

Basic Traditions of the Western World
Educational systems in the Western world were based on the Jewish religious tradition. A second tradition was derived from ancient Greece, where Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates were influential. The Greek aim was to prepare intellectually well-rounded young people. Roman education transmitted to the Western world the Latin language, classical literature, engineering, law, and the administration and organization of government.

Christianity as a Guiding Force
As the Roman Empire declined, Christianity became a potent force in Mediterranean countries and in several other areas in Europe. Many monastic schools were founded during the centuries of early Christian influence. Collections, or compendiums, of knowledge centered on the seven liberal arts: the trivium, composed of grammar, rhetoric, and logic; and the quadrivium of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. From the 5th to the 7th century these compendiums were prepared in the form of textbooks.

The Middle Ages
Throughout the Middle Ages (5th century to 15th century) the chief repositories of learning were the monasteries, which maintained archives preserving many manuscripts of the preceding classical culture. In western Europe, two revivals of learning took place in the 9th century, one under Charlemagne, and one under King Alfred the Great.

Persia and Arabia from the 6th to the 9th century had institutions for research and the study of science and language. Centers of Muslim learning were established in 859 at Al Qarawiyin University in Fès, Morocco. In 970 in Cairo, Egypt, Al Azhar University was founded. Muslims and Jews promoted education within their own societies and also served as translators who brought ancient Greek thought to European scholars.

During the Middle Ages the doctrines of Scholasticism were widely taught in western Europe. The renown of such teachers as Saint Thomas Aquinas attracted many students and led to the establishment of universities in northern Europe beginning in the 12th century. Education was the privilege of the upper classes, and most members of the lower classes had no opportunity for formal learning.

Humanism and the Renaissance
During the Renaissance (14th century to 17th century) interest in the culture of ancient Greece and Rome revived. Italian educators Vittorino da Feltre and Guarino Veronese established successful schools that influenced educators for more than 400 years. Other Renaissance contributors to educational theory include Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus, German educator Johannes Sturm, French essayist Michel de Montaigne, and Spanish humanist and philosopher Juan Luis Vives.

Protestant and Roman Catholic Influences
The Reformation movement instituted by Martin Luther in the early 16th century led to Protestant elementary and secondary schools. In Switzerland, another branch of Protestantism was founded by French theologian John Calvin, whose academy in Geneva, established in 1559, was an important educational center. The control of education by government can be traced to Luther and Calvin, among other leaders of the Reformation. The Roman Catholics, in the Counter Reformation movement, also established schools. The Jesuits set up a school system that brought Roman Catholic education to many countries.

Growth of the Sciences in the 17th Century
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, founded in 1660, helped simplify the exchange of scientific and cultural information and ideas among European scholars. The new scientific subjects became part of courses of study in the universities and the secondary schools. English philosopher Francis Bacon set forth the importance of science and stressed the principle of learning by the inductive process, in which students are encouraged to physically observe and examine many things before coming to conclusions about them. Others influential in education theory include French philosopher René Descartes; English poet John Milton; English philosopher John Locke; French educator Saint John Baptiste de la Salle; and Jan Komensky, the Protestant bishop of Moravia, better known by his Latin name, Comenius. His efforts on behalf of universal education earned him the title of Teacher of Nations.

The 18th Century: Rousseau and Others
During the 18th century a school system was established in Prussia, formal education began in Russia under Peter the Great and his successors, schools and colleges developed in Colonial America, and educational reforms resulted from the French Revolution. Late in the century the Sunday school movement was inaugurated in England for the benefit of poor and working children. During this period the monitorial method of teaching was introduced: Hundreds of children could be taught by one teacher with the aid of monitors or assistants. Both plans laid the foundation for the possibility of mass education. The foremost educational theorist of the 18th century was Jean Jacques Rousseau. His influence on education reached throughout Europe and beyond.

The 19th Century and the Rise of National School Systems
The most influential of Rousseau’s followers was Swiss educator Johann Pestalozzi, whose ideas and practices influenced schools on every continent. Other influential educators of the 19th century include Friedrich Froebel and Johann Herbart, of Germany; Horace Mann and Henry Barnard, of the United States; and British philosopher Herbert Spencer. National school systems were organized in the 19th century in England, France, Germany, Italy, and other European countries. Latin American nations looked to Europe and the United States for models for their schools. Japan drew on the experience of several European countries and the United States in the establishment of a modern school and university system. Widespread organizing of missionary education in the developing areas of the world, particularly in Africa and Oceania, also occurred.

The 20th Century: Child-Centered Education
At the beginning of the century, the book The Century of the Child (1900), written by Swedish feminist and educator Ellen Key, inspired progressive educators in various countries. Progressive education was a system of teaching based on the needs and potentials of the child, rather than on the needs of society or the precepts of religion. Influential progressive educators include Hermann Lietz and Georg Michael Kerschensteiner of Germany, Bertrand Russell of England, and Maria Montessori of Italy. American philosopher and educator John Dewey was especially influential. The activity program, which was derived from the theories of Dewey, became the major method of instruction for many years in elementary schools of the United States and elsewhere.

The current century has witnessed the expansion of the educational systems of the industrial nations, as well as the emergence of school systems among developing nations in Asia and Africa. Compulsory elementary education has become nearly universal, but large numbers of children are not attending school. To improve education worldwide, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) initiated educational projects. UNESCO aims to put every child everywhere into school and to eliminate illiteracy.

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